Peanut,Arachis hypogaea, is an herbaceous annual plant in the family Fabaceae grown for its oil and edible nuts. Peanut plants are small, usually erect, thin stemmed plants with feather-like leaves. The leaves are arranged in alternate pairs and have leaf-like attachments near the stalk. The peanut plant produces yellow, orange, cream or white flowers which produce 'pegs', characteristic floral structures which sink into the ground to grow the pod. The pods can reach up to 10 cm (4 in) in length and can contain between 1 and 5 seeds. The peanut plant can reach 0.6 m (2 ft) in height depending on the variety and as an annual plant, survives only one growing season.
Most commercially grown peanuts are used for the extraction of their oil which is used in cooking. The by product of oil extraction is a pressed cake which is used as an animal feed and also in the production of peanut flour. Raw kernels are also commonly roasted and eaten as a snack food.
Bajra popularly known as Pearl millet, cattail millet or bulrush belongs to the family Gramineae. The crop is cultivated for grain as well as for fodder in the arid region of Africa and Asia and as a pasture in U.S.A. It is originated in India or Africa. It is grown all over India except Assam and part of northeast India. Bajra is grown rainfed and crop being drought resistant hardly needs any irrigation, however it is observed that the yield may be significantly increased by irrigating the crop at critical growth stages like maximum tillering, flowering and grain filling stage. Therefore, light irrigations and efficient drainage is very essential for bajra production.
Types Of Bajra: NBH-149, VBH-4 developed for Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra are capable of producing 14% higher yield. ICM4-155 gave higher yield than the standard check and adopted for all growing tracts of India. Also H-306, NH-338 and hybrid like MP-204, MP205 have been identified.
Sorghum is a genus of about 25 species of flowering plants in the grass family Ponceau. Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. Sorghums contain phenolic acids, and most contain flavonoids. Sorghum grains are one of the highest food sources of flavonoid, proanthocyanin. Most varieties are drought- and heat- tolerant, and nitrogen-efficient, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for people.
Wheat the most staple crop of human origin has been in food habits of general population since centuries. We all consume it for our daily requirements of nutrients and fulfill our need to enhance the energy level. We can’t even think of our food without this important crop. It's been ages that we have been consuming it and seen many changes which has lead to its improvement and enhancement not only in terms of quantity but quality also. Number of research are being gone on worldwide to enhance the production of wheat. Wheat Varieties for Rabi Season are Hi 8759 (Tejas), HD 4728 (Malawi), HW 5207 (COW3), HS 562, HD 3171, HD 1605 (Ujala), Lokwan, Sarbati, Shore.
Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids. When eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber. In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, nonceliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis.
Rice is a staple in any kitchen, and with so many different types, it lends itself to a limitless number of recipes. Before you add the same type of rice to every recipe you prepare, however, think twice. Substituting one type of rice for another can really alter the result of a recipe. Each type of rice has its own taste, texture, and unique properties that work well with different cooking applications. So how do you know which one the best type of rice is to use. This guide examines factors that differentiate types of rice, from nutty basmati to fragrant jasmine and more.
Types of Rice: Long Grain Rice, Medium Grain Rice, Short Grain Rice, Parboiled Rice (IR64), Basmati Rice (Sella Rice, Golden Sella), Am be Moho r Rice, Indr ayani, Ponni Rice, Masoori Rice.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most versatile emerging crops shaving wider adaptability under varied agro-climatic conditions. Globally, maize is known as queen of cereals because it has the highest genetic yield potential among the cereals. It is cultivated on nearly 190 m ha in about 165 countries having wider diversity of soil, climate, biodiversity and management practices that contributes 39 % in the global grain production. In India, Maize is grown throughout the year. It is predominantly a kharif crop with 85 per cent of the area under cultivation in the season. Maize is the third most important cereal crop in India after rice and wheat. It accounts for around 10 per cent of total food grain production in the country. In addition to staple food for human being and quality feed for animals, maize serves as a basic raw material as an ingredient to thousands of industrial products that includes starch, oil, protein, alcoholic beverages, food sweeteners, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, film, textile, gum, package and paper industries etc.
Types Of Maize: P-3501, NK-6240, P-3396 and N-K30. Among the public sector varieties JM-216, JVM-421, African Tall, Narmada Moti and GM-6 were widely cultivated. Maharashtra Hybrids. Ganga – II, Ganga-2, DHM 103, PRO-311 (4640) Y-1402 K. SSF 9374 (3058) Bio 9681, JK 2492.